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Sure-enough, full indicate urinary citrate was raised for the rats fed K-cit (K-cit, 182±step three

cuatro mg/d versus KCl, 110±2.7 mg/d; P<0.001) ( Table 1 ). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary pH (K-cit, 7.51±0.04 versus KCl, 6.71±0.05; P<0.001). K-cit reduced mean overall urinary NH4 (K-cit, 0.25±0.01 mmol/d versus KCl, 0.41±0.01 mmol/d; P<0.001). K-cit increased the mean overall urinary sulfate (K-cit, 1.08±0.02 mEq/d versus KCl, 0.86±0.02 mEq/d; P<0.001). Each of these changes was present at each time point. Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6±0.1 mg/d versus KCl, 2.0±0.2 mg/d; P=NS).

Dining table 1.

Urinary citrate, pH and sulfate were increased while NH4, chloride, sodium and K were the same or decreased with K-cit compared to KCl

Philosophy are expressed just like the imply±SEM. Urine was amassed to possess twenty-four hours at 6, 12, and you may 18 wk to determine solute profile since demonstrated on Concise Procedures.

K-cit resulted in a slightly lower overall mean urinary sodium (K-cit, 2.16±0.03 mmol/d versus KCl, 2.36±0.04; P<0.001), which was significant at 6 and 18 weeks but not at 12 weeks ( Table 1 ). K-cit resulted in a slightly but significantly lower mean overall urinary K (K-cit, 4.8±0.04 mmol/d versus KCl, 5.3±0.08 mmol/d; P<0.001) that was significant at each time period. As expected, the rats receiving K-cit excreted less chloride than the rats receiving KCl (K-cit, 2.2±0.07 mEq/d versus KCl, 6.4±0.15 mEq/d; P<0.001), which was significant at each 6-week time period. K-cit did not alter the overall mean urine volume (K-cit, 47.3±1.6 ml/d versus KCl, 53.0±2.7 ml/d; P=NS) or the overall mean urinary creatinine (K-cit, ±0.17 mg/d versus KCl, ±0.22 mg/d; P=NS).

Urine Supersaturation

K-cit led to a significant increase in the urinary supersaturation with respect to both CaP (K-cit, 8.5±0.6 versus KCl, 4.9±0.2; P<0.001) and CaOx (K-cit, 9.8±0.5 versus KCl, 5.5±0.2; P<0.001) and a reduction of supersaturation with respect to uric acid (K-cit, 0.003±0.0005 versus KCl, 0.022±0.003; P<0.001) ( Figure 2 ). Each of these differences was significant at each time period.

Urinary supersaturation (SS) of CaP and CaOx were increased and uric acid SS was decreased with K-cit. Urine was collected for 24 hours at 6, 12, and 18 weeks to determine solute levels that were used to calculate relative supersaturation as described in the Concise Methods. Values for relative supersaturation are mean±SEM and are unitless. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Serum Accounts

Solution amounts of calcium and you will PTH failed to differ ranging from K-cit–provided and KCl-provided mice, while you are solution phosphate membership have been ;fed mice ( Shape 3 ).

K-cit decreased serum phosphate levels but did not change serum Ca or PTH. At the conclusion of the 18-week study, these levels were determined as described in the Concise Methods. Values are mean±SEM. *K-cit different from KCl, same time period, P<0.05.

Stone Formation

K-cit don’t change the quantity of rocks designed or the amount out of calcification about kidneys ( Profile cuatro ). All mice formed rocks off similar proportions and you will occurrence along with comparable degrees of calcification during the kidney and you may get together system.

Kidney stone formation and you may calcification was not other in the mice given KCl otherwise K-cit. At the conclusion of the fresh new 18-month data, brand new the quantity out of renal rocks and you can calcification is determined by three observers as demonstrated regarding the Concise Strategies. The quantity from kidney calcification was also computed due to the fact described on the To the level Strategies. (A) Associate radiographs off kidneys from mice acquiring KCl otherwise K-cit. Calcification results to your photo shown are provided because a resource. (B) Quantitation of stone formation and calcification in every rats researching KCl otherwise K-cit. Opinions is actually suggest±SEM.

Visible stones was in fact dissected out of affiliate kidneys away from both organizations and you will analyzed getting crystal morphology. Brand new diffraction designs for everybody examined trials was basically congruent with the diffraction pattern of biologic apatite, a cover stone ( Figure 5 , top). Having entry to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), all kidney stone deposits got a baton- otherwise needle-for example contour, much like the morphology off biologic apatite deposits ( Figure 5 , bottom) and you will in the place of brand new octahedral crystal morphology of Clicca per saperne di più CaOx.